Leo Tolstoy’s Theory of History
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Ω A Guidemap for my philosophy of history
Speculum Mentis: map of the mind
“philosophical principles can only be understood in their concrete expression in history.” Tolstoy.
we are trying to answer “proklyatye voprosy”, damned questions: what is to be done, how should one live, why are we here, what must we be and do?
ego sum qui sum : consciousness: what is happening?
istoria est terra incognita sed quantumcumque istoria homo-sapiens 200000 annos.
Speculum mentis- a GUIDEMAP of “Ego sum qui sum”
I. First Chapter
What is Mind? Mind(soul) and body problem.
Mind and Consciousness: ego sum ego existo: knowledge begins with consciousness, comprehended by the mind and expressed by a language
1. Self identity: Who am I?, What Am I?
2. Mind and consciousness (awareness): know thyself! last frontier of the human quest is mind: why it is important? the implications of selfhood: (Cognosce te ipsum, gnothi sauton, men arefe nefsehu)
3. Mind and its fictions and dreams : dreams, lucid dreams
a. kinds of dreams (rem, lucid hypnotic etc)
b. dreams of imagination and reality: art as a free and fictive dream of virtual reality by imagination creatrix
c. constructive but constrained dreams,: time, causality and space, history, synchronical reality as present and futuristic dreams
d. korzybski’s concept of time-binding
4. mind and comprehension :apriori, aposteriori; empiricism rationalism scepticism
II. Mind and its knowledge:
1. works and tools of the mind: sensation, perception, conception, qualia (feelings), intuition, imagination creatrix, intellect
2. acts of the mind and its perspectives: it dreams, creates, believes, knows (scire), contemplates, memorizes (the history of past experience) tries to find a meaning in his personal history and also, in history in toto, and tries to find the meaning of life and existence, aspirations of the soul, self articulation and realization of selfhood
III. How mind acquires knowledge? and what is true knowledge?
Res cogitans :
1. Mind’s Limitations of consciousness :limited consciousness because of limited sensations: limits of sensory organs organs
sensation, perception, intuition, conception, imagination, self awareness. A priori,a posteriori
2 Mind’s limitations of of expression tools : art and language; semantics, logics, mathematics
a. Mind’s linguistic limitations of comprehension because of the usage of everyday language and the logic of ordinary languages
b. semantics, abstraction levels, what is the meaning of truth? Truth:
c. Mind’s Logical limitations of reasoning: different kinds of logic.
d. Mind’s Mathematical limitations of reasoning for the conceptions of reality
Formal, realist and intuitive mathematics, Infinity and set theory, CH continuum Hypothesis ,What is space and space-time continuum? Geometry: space and its dimensions, Geometries with 2, 3, 4 ,6N 10, 11, 26 and “ n “ infinite dimensions, Euclid, Riemann, Lobachevsky, Hilbert 6N faz spin, chaotic, string (String theory needs 11 or 26 dimensions)
IV. Res extensa:
Comprehensive limitations of Mind: empiricism, rationalism, scepticism
knowledge about external phenomenon:
perception and conception: individuum (est ineffable) Universal
facts, undividable individual event and events, Principle of individuation,) processes: substance-existence and events of space-time
external objects, name, concept: particular, universal individualism and holism
time, space, space time, substance (essence, mode, attribute), change, causality (necessary and Sufficient reason), determinism, consistency
Sceptical judgements about mind and knowledge
II. Second Chapter
Speculum mentis II: THE MAP KNOWLEDGE
Perspectives: seven pillars of wisdom:
rainbow; all meaning is an angle
angles of perspectives: introspectare, perspectare?, prospectare, inspectare, retrospectare, conspectare, extrospectare ,
religion with its social and mystical dimensions
philosophy of history
when used all at once whether it be colours or lights make a black pitch view; so they should be used separately but integrated at last to make a full understanding from this holistik view of existence
angles of perspectives: introspectare, perspectare?, prospectare, inspectare, retrospectare, conspectare, extrospectare. when they used all at once whether it be colours or lights make a black pitch view so they should be used separately but integrated at last to make a full understanding from this holistik view of existence. Earth from space: visible and invisible lights….
Humanity had begun with the art: creating tools and language which uses metaphors as tools as poetry (“Poema” simply means “that which is made… or creation.” It means “work of art.”) by his imagination. Then comes beliefs. After a while he makes science and philosophy. Real historical understanding or historical worldview (historicism) appears with reanaissance and develops later on. Real Methodology and Philosophy of history begins in 20th century. 21st century it is the time for gnosis -a real quest for meaning- we began to decipher the cosmic meaning of existence
1. art (begins from intuition dreaming and consructing a virtual reality by using imagination creatrix)
2. religion/theology (belief for orientation and need for social cohesion theologian begins from the knowledge revealed by god, and being so, it considers itself absolute and ultımate truth)
as cultural stanpoint and a framework of understanding
with its social and mystical dimensions
3. science (tries to acquire objective knowledge by scientific methods, relies on experience and testability of the results
scire-science pertaining to space and material objects of nature
4. philosophy (uses logic semantic and mathematics as the tools of mind for contemplation), thinking tools
inspective analyses of truth value etc, and synthetical understanding
5. history tries to discover past experience and constructs and tells a story of the past experience of humanity)
“history would be an excellent thing if only it were true.” Tolstoy declares to gusev in 1908
history- what is told as historical narratives and history itself (as the events of past time)
But side by side with this… very important passage to be cited : H.F. 31 I.berlin.
Babil Kralı Nebukadnetsar’ın Rüyası..
Aviezer Tucker: Our Knowledge of the Past
6. philosophy of history : tries to understand (by finding some understandable patterns, etc.) and explain the meaning of the human experience in toto.
thinking pertaining to time an explanation of history as a quest for meaning
insanlık tarihinin en önemli nirengi noktaları:tarihte anlamlı bir pattern (örüntü, kalıp) var mı? kültür kalıpları kültürler medeniyetler sanayi devrimi medeniyet ötesi bir çağa geçişin sancıları
when used all at once whether it be colours or lights make a black pitch view so they should be used separately but integrated at last to make a full understanding from this holistik view of existence
Tarihte duzen fikri
. philosophy of history thinking pertaining to time an explanation of history as the quest for meaning Summa Philosophico-Istoria
: “philosophical principles can only be understood in their concrete expression in history.” Tolstoy
interpretation as a holistically integrated consciousness of different wavelengths of lights,
ibni haldun umran as economic religious and cultural aspects of human Existence
vico linguagical expression of human construction
voltaire, condorcet history as variouus cultural expressions of progress
kant’s humanist interpretations
hegel as philosophical interpretation
carlyle, plekhanov great man interpretation of history
herder nationalist interpretation of history
mill, montesqio, comte, pareto, weber, sorokin sociological interpretations
buckle scientific interpretation
marxism economical interpretation
dostoyevsky danilevsky orthodox religious interpretation
tolstoy artistic, religious and anarchistical interpretation
spengler as the story of cultures
philosophy of historiography dilthey, croce berlin colingwood, mannheim, tucker etc.
toynbee as the story of civilizations
colingwood as the reenacment of past experience
philosophy of historiography dilthey, croce berlin colingwood, mannheim, tucker etc.
şahin uçar’s, speculum mentis:
as a holistically integrated consciousness of different lights, To repeat tolstoy, “philosophical principles can only be understood in their concrete expression in history.” (by philosophy of history). To repeat tolstoy The leaves of a tree deligt us more than the roots. şahin uçar, begins from ego sum qui sum:
Speculum mentis III: Gnosis.
orientation & Projection:
7. the quest for meaning: Nosce te ipsum- beginning from the meaning of self existence, self identiy and Mind
gnosis is a quest which begins from self knowledge tries to discover the meaning of life and existence in toto)
.cosmic consciousness as mystical experience: nunc aeterna
man, being and space-time; syncronical and diacronical existence, history as time…
IV. FOURTH Chapter: TIME & MIND
TIME and MIND: the ultimate meaning of Time and Being
What is time?
Change, Synchronic, diachronic, arrow of time, myth of passage, creative evolution
Time and existence, space-time, point instants
Time, meaning and destiny
Mind’s comprehension of time
Mind, time and existence